LC-4000 Series Integrated HPLC and UHPLC Systems
Conventional HPLC Analytical Systems up to 70MPa
The LC-4000 Series 70 MPa system has been designed to future-proof your HPLC requirements. The LC-4000 70 MPa system can be used with conventional 3 and 5 μm particle size analytical columns at typical lower pressures around 10 to 20 MPa (1500 to 3000 psi) and can also be used with smaller particles such as shorter length UHPLC columns and superficially porous (SPP) or Coreshell that require slightly higher pressure solvent delivery to provide optimum linear velocity through the column.
LC-4000 Series HPLC System Configurations
The LC-4000 series HPLC analytical and preparative HPLC systems have a number of common features:
- 300 mm wide footprint
- Each system component is completely stackable into a modest height
- The system is fully integrated with complete system monitoring
- All user replaceable components are accessible through the front panel
- Vertical leak/drain system to channel away solvent
- Integrated earthquake securing option
- All detectors include 100 Hz acquistion with interchangeable flowcells
LC-4000 Series HPLC Features
Advances in Solvent Delivery
For over two decades JASCO analytical HPLC pumps have employed an asymmetric twin-piston solvent delivery system SSQD (Slow Suction, Quick Delivery) which provides significantly better flow and pressure profiles than the commonly used conventional twin-piston reciprocating design. In the LC-4000 series, SSQD has been re-developed, with a completely new solvent delivery mechanism ExReFT (Extremely Reliable Flow Technology) offering the highest stability in solvent delivery across the entire analytical flow rate range used in the PU-4180/85 RHPLC and PU-4280/85 UHPLC pump models.
Pioneering Optical Design
As a pioneer in optical spectroscopy, JASCO has access to optical designs that few can match. Adopting designs from some of our more powerful spectrometers we have developed a range of HPLC optical detectors with unrivalled performance, like the new class leading FP-4020 fluorescence detector with S/N of over 2300:1, the latest high-speed refractive index detector with micro cell optimized for RHPLC and UHPLC and a completely revised circular dichroismdetector for chiral chromatography.
New Technologies for Method Development
With the range of column technologies becoming ever more diverse - the traditional 5um fully porous particle is finally losing ground to some of the newer technologies such as the new superficially porous solid core (Coreshell) and the wide variety of sub-2um particles, the requirements for method development are becoming more demanding. The LC-4000 series has a number of newly developed accessories to help you make better separations faster, with accessories such as, flexible and stackable column ovens in a range of sizes to accommodate analytical to preparative columns and multiple columns at every scale and with options for integrated 6 or 10 solvent and column selection valves.
Compact and Easy to Use
Despite the extra power delivered by the LC-4000 series HPLC, the standard footprint is only 300 mm wide, a standard system requires only a very small amount of bench space.
For easy user-maintenance, all LC-4000 instruments feature front-access for replacing consumables such as pump components and light sources, even the autosampler consumables such as the syringe parts are easy to access.
For those users who require front-panel control, the LC-4000 series retains the popular keypad and display (with a backlit LED display as standard). Keypad control can still be configured for convenient override when under PC control.
Each LC-4000 module is designed for easy maintenance.
Front-panel access to light source and consumables
The LC-4000 Series pump modules requires smaller bench space than ordinary HPLC pumps. An integrated solvent delivery system can be incorporated into a single pump module.
The LC-4000 Series next generation HPLC pumps with flexible expandability
The LC-4000 series HPLC pumps include expansion bays that allow a simple pump module to be transformed into a powerful solvent delivery system. Accessory modules can be installed in the LC-4000 series pump for use with virtually any solvent delivery requirement.
Upgrade and Expansion
The unique expansion bays in the pump platform can be fitted with plug-in modules to quickly and easily transform a simple isocratic pumping system into a sophisticated multi-solvent delivery system by installing a second pump, degasser, quaternary gradient unit, solvent selection valve or dynamic mixer without increasing the footprint. Adding a second pump module enables an isocratic pump to be upgraded to a dual pump system for either binary gradient or two isocratic flows. A powerful configuration of the single-unit design is the quaternary gradient solvent delivery system including degasser, with a post-column reagent pump configured in a compact chassis only 300mm wide.
Analytical pump platform
PU-4180 Flow rate accuracy
|Mobile phase||Acetonitrile/Water (8020)|
|Column||CrestPak C18S (4.6mml.D. x 150mm, 5µm)|
|Column temperature||40 deg C|
|Detection wave lenght||260nm, Response; 1sec|
|Sample||Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (10µg/mL each)
(Naphthalene, Fluorene, Anthracene, Pyrene, Chrysene, Benzon[a]pyrene)
Retention time reproducibility (n=10)
|Standard diviation (n-1)||0.001||0.001||0.001||0.001||0.001||0.002|
The problems caused by pressure variations in solvent delivery when switching between the two pump heads has been improved with a new design that precisely controls the plunger drive. The LC- 4 0 0 0 series analytical pumps offer flow rate precision with RSDs of better than 0.05% (difficult to achieve with commercially available pumps). The PU-4180 and 4185 pumps operate at pressures up to 70 MPa, designed mainly for use with RHPLC for core- shell columns or similar micro packing materials as well as working at pressures commonly used for conventional HPLC. The PU- 4280 and PU- 4285 UHPLC pumps provide precise flow at pressures up to 130 MPa; for columns with particle sizes of less than 2 μm. The LC-4000 series UHPLC system can also be used for rapid analysis HPLC (RHPLC) and conventional HPLC.
Semi micro pump platform
The PU-4180/85 and PU-4280/85 analytical pumps can be configured for both single pump gradient and multiple pump gradient operation. The single pump quaternary gradient module offers excellent gradient formation for up to four solvents. The newly designed 4-way solvent valve for switching the four solvents is synchronized to the operation of the pump motor control - variable cycle adaption optimizes delivery according to gradient resolution and flow rate. This highly efficient quaternary gradient mode can be applied to a wide flow-rate range from low to high flow rates. Two and three pump binary or ternary gradient modules with optional built-in degasser are available for fast cycle high-resolution gradient formation; the response time is superior to the single pump quaternary gradient system.
Two pump binary gradient
Multi-pump gradient mixing is done using a variable speed dynamic mixer with a range of a small volume mixing chambers incorporating a micro-stirrer to provide the smallest possible dead volume, offering higher mixing efficiencies for all HPLC solvents. The optional in-line TERA Mixer is a turbulent-flow solvent mixer uniquely designed to offer high efficiency mixing with minimal dead volume.
The in-line vacuum degasser module uses a new Teflon AF membrane with a hold-up volume of only 400μL (per solvent line); this offers very quick solvent replacement with minimal waste. Despite its small size, the new degasser offers more effective and stable degassing than larger previous generation models. A degasser for preparative-HPLC is also available.
(compact quaternary gradient pump with micro-volume degasser) *Option
|Mobile phase||A; Water, B, Acetonitrile|
|Gradient||(A/B) (65/35) → (5/95) Linear Gradient|
|Column||CrestPak C18S (4.6mml.D. x 150mm, 5µm)|
|Column temperature||40 deg C|
|Detection wave lenght||254nm, Response; 1sec|
|Sample||Alkylphenon samles 10μg/mL (Benzohenon 5μg/mL) (Acetanilide, Acetophenone, Propiophenone, Butyrophenone, Benzophenone, Valerophenone, Hexanophenone, Heptanophenone,Octanophenone)|
Retention time reproducibility (n=10)
|Standard diviation (n-1)||0.001||0.002||0.002||0.003||0.002||0.003|
|Standard diviation (n-1)||0.003||0.002||0.002|
Preparative and Semi-preparative Pumps
The LC-4000 Preparative-HPLC System includes pumps at three scales. The PU-4086 pump offers flow rates up to 20 mL/min, the PU-4087 pump up to 50 mL/min and the PU-4088 up to 120mL/ min. Both single and multi-pump gradient modes can be used with the PU-4086 pump platform whilst the PU-4087 and PU-4088 are used in multi-pump mode only. The new MK2 technology used in the PU-4086 and PU-4087 motor driver control has been increased so that the maximum pressure can be used at higher flow-rates for all pump models. Solvents can be delivered at higher flow rates and higher pressures for use with longer preparative HPLC columns that generate more back pressure and for faster and more productive preparative separations. Dynamic mixers, solvent selection valves and the prep degasser can be installed in the expansion bays in both the PU-4086 and PU-4087 modules.
PU-4186 semi prep pump
Recycling inlet switching unit,
Recycling valve unit (Option)
Autosamplers - AS-4050/4050i/4150/4250/4058
The LC-4000 Series autosamplers provide a range of options to suit any sample injection requirements, from the AS-4050 entry-level model, to the AS-4250 UHPLC model or the AS-4058 preparative scale autosampler.
The AS-4050 is a 60 sample autosampler for use with conventional HPLC with options for analytical and semi-preparative injection volumes. The AS-4150 and AS-4250 are high-capacity, high performance autosamplers designed for RHPLC (up to 70MPa)and UHPLC (up to 130MPa), respectively, with a minimum injection cycle-time of only 30 seconds. Peltier cooling is available for all autosamplers and light protection for photo- labile samples is available on the higher level models.
Pre-injection sample preparation is available on the high performance autosamplers with programmable options for sample dilution and pre-column derivitization.
The injection mode can be switched between full loop injection and partial loop injections.
Up to 5 different washing solvents can be used to achieve excellent carry-over at less than 0.005%.
An optional degasser can be installed for degassing up to 5 flushing solvents.
The AS-4058 is the LC-4000 Series largest volume autosampler with injection volumes up to 5mL as standard (up to 10mL as an option). The AS-4058 is typically used in combination with either a PU-4087 or PU-4088 pump for preparative separations.
All LC-4000 series autosamplers share the same simple maintenance features, with consumable parts such as injection ports, rotor seals, and loops accessible from the front panel for easy replacement.
AS-4050/4150/4250/4058 flow diagram (loop injection)
Designed for easy maintenance
The LC-4000 Series column ovens have been designed to provide excellent utility for a wide range of different user requirements. For simple requirements the stackable CO-4061 can be used with column lengths up to 200mm (or up to 300mm with an optional extension).
For RHPLC and UHPLC the CO-4062 has capacity for up to six 150 mm length columns, with optional one or t wo internally mounted automatic switching valves for 2 or 6 column selection.
For GPC and larger preparative columns, select either of the two high-capacity CO- 4060 or CO-4065 ovens. The CO-4060 can accommodate columns with lengths up to 300mm or larger ID preparative columns. The CO-4065 can accommodate up to 10 columns with lengths up to 300mm and a pair of column selection valves is included as standard.
All column ovens have built- in electronic cooling for controlling column temperature at sub-ambient temperatures.
The CO-4062 and CO-4061 block-heater type ovens can be fitted with an optional micro-volume pre-heating unit for pre- heating the mobile phase before the column to improve resolution and peak shape.
The RO-4068 reaction oven is used for high temperature post-column sample processing with capacity for columns and reaction coils.
Efficiency comparison of stabilizer
(3 mmI.D. x 50 mmL, 2 μm)
|Eluent||Water / Acetonitrile (Gradient)|
|Sample||Gasoline Oxidization Products|
Comparison of Toluene peaks
|Room Temp.||Oven Temp.||Pre-Column Stabilizer||Theoretical||Peak Width||tR(min)|
UniFinePak HPLC Columns
UniFinePak is a new type of column that uses a hybrid packing material. Compared with traditional packing materials that use silica as the base material, UniFinePak columns can be used with a wider pH range from alkali to acid. UniFinePak columns offer an extended analysis range due to its chemical strength and resilience to high pressure operation.
The entire range of UniFinePak columns uses a common packing material in a range of particle sizes from semi-micro to analytical to semi preparative scales, which simplifies method development when scaling-up separations from analytical to semi- preparative .
Method Conversion Program
Optional Preparative HPLC fraction collection kit
The LC-4000 series preparative system fraction collection kit includes
Flow divertor valve
ChromNav FC fraction control program for ChromNAV
A comprehensive range of high performance optical detectors
With JASCO’s long history of spectrometer development, you will find that each detector is well designed; these next generation detectors employ the latest optical and electronic technologies for high sensitivity, excellent stability and easy maintenance.
MD-4010, MD-4015 and MD-4017 PDA Detectors
The LC-4000 Series includes three PDA detectors. The MD-4017 is a useful replacement for a single wavelength detector, the MD-4015 is the workhorse for UV- visible detection in the range 200 to 600nm and the MD-4010 is designed for high sensitivity and high spectral and time resolution.
The MD-4010 PDA detector offers the highest detection sensitivity, equivalent to a single wavelength detector. Making use of a 1024 element photometric diode array, the measurement wavelength range is from 190nm to 900nm with a MD-4010 PDA resolution of 1nm and fast spectrum acquisition rate of up to 100 spectra/sec. When used with the new temperature controlled SP type semi-micro flow cell the MD-4010 is well suited to the narrower peaks typically found with UHPLC or RHPLC separations. The MD-4010 is fitted with an internal mercury lamp for automatic wavelength calibration.
The MD-4015 PDA detector is the routine detector for conventional HPLC, RHPLC and UHPLC. The sensitivity is almost equivalent to that of the MD-4010 but only covers the wavelength range from 200nm to 600nm using a 512 element PDA for 1nm resolution and with high speed 100Hz spectrum acquisition.
The MD-4017 detector has a price-point comparable to a typical single wavelength detector and has been designed for the user only interested in the UV region from 200-400nm, the resolution is excellent at 1nm and the maximum spectrum acquisition is 20 spectra per second (20Hz), useful for peak widths as small as 1 to 2 seconds.
When used with ChromNAV 2.0 CDS the PDA detector offers multi-functional analysis with a variety of functions such as spectral analysis, library search for peak identification, peak purity and multi-wavelength quantitation.
Front panel access for easy lamp replacement
ChromNAV PDA data processing included as standard
UV- 4070/4075UV-Visible Detectors
Using the advanced Czerny- Turnermonochromator design with optimization of the optical system, baseline change due to refractive index is minimized. Baseline fluctuation from changes in environmental temperature is reduced with a temperature - controlled cell, baseline drift caused by temperature fluctuation in the light source is also reduced with a temperature controlled light source. The result is excellent stability with UV-4070 UV Visible UV spectra auto-scan Automatic spectral scannning can be controlled using ChromNAV, when a peak exceeds a set threshold a scan is executed automatically. 0.24 220000 200000 the noise level +/- 0.2x10 -5 AU and drift 1x10 -4 AU/h.
Both detectors offer simultaneous dual-wavelength data acquisition and spectral scanning. User maintenance can be done without removing the module from the system. Front-panel access is used for light source replacement and automatic wavelength calibration can be carried out using a mercury lamp. Both detectors include high speed data acquisition at up to 100Hz and can be used for conventional HPLC with the standard flow cell and for UHPLC/RHPLC when used with the SP type semi-micro cell.
UV-4070 UV-Visible Detectors
UV spectra auto-scan
Automatic spectral scannning can be controlled using ChromNAV, when a peak exceeds a set threshold a scan is executed automatically.
Spectral measurement view
Spectral measurement view
Fluorescence detector FP-4020/4025
The FP-4020 fluorescence detector has been designed for the pursuit of extreme sensitivity. Re-designing the optics and electronics from the ground up, as well as removing the effects of ambient temperature with a new temperature- regulated cell body has led to the highest sensitivity with stable detection. The new axially irradiated cell design enables the very highest sensitivity detection. These changes have resulted in a giant leap in sensitivity for the FP-4020 to achieve a signal noise ratio of 2300:1 or higher (based on the water Raman peak). The FP-4025 is an excellent routine fluorescence detector that has a slightly lower specification with a water Raman S/N of 1400:1 .
Both detectors can be used for simultaneous detection at two wavelength pairs; excitation and emission wavelengths can be changed during the acquisition using a time program and automatic spectra scanning can be triggered manually, by time or automatically by threshold. A built-in mercury lamp enables automatic wavelength correction and the front-access design allows easy replacement of the flow cell assembly and light source.
High sensitivity measurement of Anthracene
Dual wavelenght simultaneous measurement
Refractive Index detector RI-4030/4035
The Refractive Index detectors include the optical system mounted in a precisely temperature-regulated housing to eliminate the influence of changes in ambient temperature. The RI-4030 and 4035 detectors are fully stable just one hour after powering on. The RI-4030 can be used for both analytical and preparative scales. In preparative mode the maximum flow rate is 120 ml/min. The RI-4035 is a dedicated semi-micro RI detector with a micro-volume flow cell designed for use with semi-micro GPC analysis using GPC columns with a fine pore size.
The 100Hz data acquisition rate makes the RI-4035 suitable for RHPLC and UHPLC separations. The LED light source in both detectors has a long life time (over 10,000 hours) for low maintenance operation. Both the RI-4030 and RI-4035 detectors can be fitted with an optional pressure release safety-valve to prevent damage to the flow cell in the event blockage.
RI-4030 Refractive Index
Circular Dichroism detector CD-4095
The CD-4095 is a unique HPLC detector for measuring circular dichroism developed from the market leading J-Series circular dichroism spectropolarimeter. Optically active compounds with a chromophore close to a chiral center may absorb circularly polarized light, which can be detected with excellent sensitivity and selectivity. When chiral compounds are measured using a UV-Visible detector, the d- and l- enantiomers cannot be distinguished even when separated by a chiral column.
The CD-4095 circular dichroism detector makes it possible to positively distinguish between the d- and l- enantiomers by measuring the positive and negative peaks. It is also possible to quantify the d- and l-forms even when they are not separated, a calibration curve based on the g-factor can be used to determine the enantiomeric ratio. The ChromNAV CDS can be used to simultaneously measure the CD, g-factor data and UV-visible signal. The CD spectra of eluted compounds can be measured by triggering scanning manually, by timed program or automatically by threshold.
CD-4095 Circular Dichroism
Chiral detector OR-4090
The OR-4090 Chiral detector measures the angle of rotation of plane polarized light caused by optical active isomers and is useful for chiral compounds with no absorption. The OR-4090 uses a high intensity Hg-Xe arc lamp (150W) providing a strong output in the UV/Visible region where the largest optical rotations offer the highest sensitivity. The wide wavelength range from 350-900nm also allows measurement of a wide variety of samples. One of the key benefits of optical rotation detection is that it is unaffected by changes in solvent and can be used with gradient elution, unlike an RI detector.
OR-4090 Optical Rotation
ChromNAV 2.0 The 'PowerTool' for HPLC Analysis
ChromNAV 2.0 (and ChromNAV-CFR 2.0) are JASCO’s next generation CDS developed from the powerful and easy-to-use ChromNAV 1.0 with a host of exciting new features. With a customizable graphical-user-interface (GUI), the user can set-up the system to display only the functions necessary for their application. This latest intuitive GUI allows the user to quickly learn the operation and explore the extensive functionality for data processing.
ChromNAV 2.0 is a universal CDS which can be used with any type of separation - HPLC, UHPLC, RHPLC, prep-HPLC and analytical SFC. ChromNav can also satisfy the demands of dedicated analysis and multi-purpose systems.
The pump flow rate and gradient profile display is flexible and can be overlaid with a chromatogram for adjusting gradient conditions.
PDA data processing is included as standard. Data is displayed in 2D contour plot and 3D with simultaneous overlay of spectra and chromatograms.Extract chromatograms at single or multiple wavelengths for quantitation.
ChromNAV 2.0 offers powerful system control and data acquisition with options for 2D (or up to 4D) gradient control and multi-zone oven control with control of up to 3 column ovens for method development. Solvent and column selection control is increased to include up to 10 positions for both. During acquisition, the run-time for a chromatogram can be increased to capture later eluting peaks which may exceed the set run-time.
Previously acquired chromatograms can be overlaid for visual comparison with the data currently being acquired, as a quick indicator to the user of current separation performance. Data acquisition and analysis for a PDA detector are included as standard in ChromNAV. The fluorescence and UV-visible detectors include the spectral scanning as standard, which can be triggered manually, by time or by threshold. A newly added feature of ChromNAV 2.0 is the automatic message that can be emailed to your PC or smartphone to give an update on the progress of the sequence.
Data acquisition and analysis for a PDA detector are included as standard in ChromNAV. With the increasing requirements for Green Energy, the LC-4000 series has the facility not only to power off and save lamp life at the end of the run, but also a ‘soft-off’ function to automatically power off a module at the end of the sequence.
ChromNav 2.0 standard features
- Peak integration and peak identification
- Peak grouping
- Linear and non-linear quantitation
- 3D chromatogram analysis,
- Spectral analysis for UV-visible, Fluorescence and PDA detectors
- Style report generator
- User calculation
All raw data is protected and saved; which can then be analyzed and re-analyzed, reported and saved with both the raw data and with any data processing from the user’s analysis.
A comprehensive audit trail records the acquisition method along with a history of instrument performance indicators in each sample data file, which provides the user a snap-shot of the condition of the system during the run and can warn about requirements for impending maintenance.
ChromNAV 2.0 Optional Applications
- ChromNAV CFR for 21 CFR Part 11 compliance and electronic registration of data
- GPC molecular weight dispersion
- Molecular weight dispersion of low molecular weight heparin
- FUMI theory (Function of Mutual Information) for theoretical precision analysis
Molecular weight distribution program ( Option ) ChromNAV GPC/SEC calculation program for GPC analysis
ChromNAV- FC Collection view window (Option)
ChromNAV-FC fraction collector control for the CHF- 122SC fraction collector
ChromNAV-FC for preparative HPLC
The optional ChromNAV-FC fraction collector control is available as part of the Prep-HPLC kit and provides ChromNav with the capability to control the LC-4000 Series preparative HPLC system for fraction collection.
ChromNAV-FC offers control for two different capacity fraction collectors, with sophisticated fractionation control with several methods for peak collection, such as time, threshold and slope, and can even be programmed to use data collected simultaneously from multiple detectors such as UV-visible, refractive index or circular dichroism. Fraction simulation is applied to an acquired chromatogram to optimize the fraction collection parameters and the graphical display can be used to locate peaks of interest in the fraction collector tray.
ChromNAV-FC also supports additional functions for prep-HPLC applications, including automatic multi-channel fractions, fraction repeat and fraction re-cycle.
*1: ChromNAV CFR is an optional software package for ChromNAV.
Dedicated analysis systems
Ready solutions for multiple applications
N-methyl carbamate pesticides
Post-column derivatization with semi-micro HPLC
This N-methyl carbamate pesticide analysis system employs OPA post-column derivatization and fluorescence detection. High-pressure gradient elution with semi-micro HPLC and highly sensitive detection using the fluorescence detector enables a maximum 18-component analysis in one injection.
Iminoctadine triacetate analysis system
Post-column derivatization and fluorescence detection
This system is designed for iminoctadine triacetate analysis. It uses a fluorescence detector to measure iminoctadine by means of ion chromatography and post-column derivatization.
Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in tap water
1, 3-cyclohexanedione post column derivatization
This system enables high sensitivity measurements of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde at the ppb level without any pre-processing by means of post-column derivatization and fluorescence detection employing 1, 3-cyclohexanedione as a reaction reagent. This method can be applied not only to environmental water analysis, including rainwater, river water, and lake water, but also to food analysis.
Cyanide ion and cyanogen chloride
Ion chromatography post-column absorption spectroscopy
Ion chromatography post-column absorption spectroscopy is employed in the analysis of cyanide ions and cyanogen chloride. This analysis method forms cyanide by allowing chloramine T to react with cyanogen eluted from the column. The cyanide then reacts with a 4-pyridinecarboxylic acid/pyrazolone solution. The blue color obtained is measured at a wavelength of 638 nm to determine the quantity of cyanide ions and cyanogen chloride
Protein hydrolysate amino acids
OPA post-column derivatization and fluorescence detection
This amino acid analysis system uses post-column derivatization and fluorescence detection employing o-phthalaldehyde (OPA) as a reaction reagent. 20 kinds of protein hydrolysate amino acids were analysed in about 30 minutes. Changing the separation column and eluent makes it possible to support protein hydrolytic amino acids (Na column) or biologic amino acids (Li column).
Polyphosphoric acid in food additives
Post-column derivatization and visible absorption detection
This system analyzes polyphosphoric acid in food additives used in fish cake and dairy products such as ice cream by means of post-column derivatization and visible absorption detection. The detectable wavelength is 830 nm for the heteropoly blue complex that is generated by molybdenum and phosphorus. The system can measure tripolyphosphate from metaphosphate in a short time using an isocratic elution solution. It can also separate and detect polyphosphoric acid with a degree of polymerization of 10 or more
Food additive compounds
Diode array and fluorescence detection
This is a system for simultaneously analyzing 43 different food additives at once. The diode array detector and fluorescence detector selectively detect multiple ingredients. The figure shows the chromatograms obtained at each wavelength with the photo diode array detector and the fluorescence detector. Peaks 13 (isosteviol) and 28 (diphenyl) that were not separated when using either 210 or 240 nm detection with the diode array detector were selectively detected at 270 nm (peak 13) using the diode array and fluorescence (peak 28) detectors.
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